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The main code path for user authentication starts with a call to the UserFacade.loginUser() method. This calls into Apache Shiro for the actual authentication. This is basically what the code looks like to authenticate using the Shiro SecurityManager that the ExecutionContextFactoryImpl keeps internally:

UsernamePasswordToken token = new UsernamePasswordToken(username, password)
Subject loginSubject = eci.getEcfi().getSecurityManager() .createSubject(new DefaultSubjectContext())

Shiro is configured by default to use the MoquiShiroRealm so this ends up in a call to the MoquiShiroRealm.getAuthenticationInfo() method, which authenticates using the entity and handles things like disabled accounts, keeping track of failed login attempts, etc. Here are the lines from the shiro.ini file where this is configured:

moquiRealm = org.moqui.impl.util.MoquiShiroRealm
securityManager.realms = $moquiRealm

Shiro can be configured to use other authentication realms such as the CasRealm, JdbcRealm, or JndiLdapRealm classes that come with Shiro. You can also implement your own, or even modify the MoquiShiroRealm class to better suit your needs. Shiro has documentation for writing your own realm, and each of these classes has documentation on configuration, such as this JavaDoc for JndiLdapRealm to use it with an LDAP server:

Back to the MoquiShiroRealm that is used by default, here is its default configuration from the MoquiDefaultConf.xml file that can be overridden in your runtime Moqui Conf XML file:

        <password encrypt-hash-type="SHA-256" min-length="8" min-digits="1" min-others="1"  history-limit="5" change-weeks="104" email-require-change="false" email-expire-hours="48"/>
        <login-key encrypt-hash-type="SHA-256" expire-hours="144"/><!-- default expire 6 days, 144 hours -->
        <login max-failures="3" disable-minutes="5" history-store="true" history-incorrect-password="false"/>

The login element configures the max number of login failures to allow before disabling a UserAccount (max-failures), how long to disable the account when the max failures is reached (disable-minutes), whether to store a history of login attempts in the UserLoginHistory entity (history-store) and whether to persist incorrect passwords in the history (history-incorrect-password).

The login-key element is used to configure login/api key. encrypt-hash-type tells which hash algorithm to use and expire-hours tells how long it takes to expire.

The password element is used to configure the password constraints that are checked when creating an account (org.moqui.impl.UserServices.create#UserAccount) or updating a password (org.moqui.impl.UserServices.update#Password).

Settings include the hash algorithm to use for passwords before persisting them and before comparing an entered password (encrypt-hash-type; MD5, SHA, SHA-256, SHA-384, SHA512), the minimum password length (min-length), the minimum number of digit characters in the password (min-digits), the minimum number of characters other than digits or letters (min-others), how many old passwords to remember on password change to avoid use of the same password (history-limit), and how many weeks before forcing a password change (change-weeks).

The main way to reset a forgotten password is by an email that includes a randomly generated password. The email-require-change attribute specifies whether to require a change on the first login with the password from the email, making it a temporary password. The email-expire-hours attribute specifies how many hours before the password in the email expires.

Simple Permissions

The most basic for of authorization (authz) is a permission explicitly checked by code. Artifact-aware authz (covered in the next section) is generally more flexible as it is configured external to the artifact (screen, service, etc) and is inheritable to avoid issues when artifacts (especially services) are reused.

The API method to check permissions is the ec.user.hasPermission(String userPermissionId) method. A user has a permission if the user is a member (UserGroupMember) of a group (UserGroup) that has the permission (UserGroupPermission). The userPermissionId may point to a UserPermission record, but it may also be any arbitrary text value as the UserGroupPermission has no foreign key to UserPermission.

Artifact-Aware Authorization

The artifact-aware authorization in Moqui enables external configuration of access to artifacts such as screens, screen transitions, services, and even entities. With this approach there is no need to add code or configuration to each artifact to check permissions or otherwise see if the current user has access to the artifact.

Artifact Execution Stack and History

The ArtifactExecutionFacade is used by all parts of the framework to keep track of each artifact as it executes. It keeps a stack of the currently executing artifacts, each one pushed on the stack as it begins (with one of the push() methods) and popped from the stack as it ends (with the pop() method). As each artifact is pushed on to the stack it is also added to a history of all artifacts used in the current ExecutionContext (i.e., for a single web request, remote service call, etc).

Use the ArtifactExecutionInfo peek() method to get info about the artifact at the top of the stack, Deque<ArtifactExecutionInfo> getStack() to get the entire current stack, and List<ArtifactExecutionInfo> getHistory() to get a history of all artifacts executed.

This is important for artifact-aware authorization because authz records are inheritable. If an artifact authz is configured inheritable then not only is that artifact authorized but any artifact it uses is also authorized.

Imagine a system with hundreds of screens and transitions, thousands of services, and hundreds of entities. Configuring authorization for every one of them would require a massive effort to both setup initially and to maintain over time. It would also be very prone to error, both incorrectly allowing and denying access to artifacts and resulting in exposure of sensitive data or functionality, or runtime errors for users trying to perform critical operations that are a valid part of their job.

The solution is inheritable authorization. With this you can setup access to an entire application or part of an application with authz configuration for a single screen that all sub-screens, transitions, services, and entities will inherit. To limit the scope sensitive services and entities can have a deny authz that overrides the inheritable authz, requiring special authorization to those artifacts. With this approach you have a combination of flexibility, simplicity, and granular control of sensitive resources.

This is also used to track performance metrics for each artifact. See the Artifact Execution Runtime Profiling section for details.

Artifact Authz

The first step to configure artifact authorization is to create a group of artifacts. This involves a ArtifactGroup record and a ArtifactGroupMember record for each artifact, or artifact name pattern, in the group.

For example here is the artifact group for the Example app with the root screen (ExampleApp.xml) as a member of the group:

   < artifactGroupId="EXAMPLE_APP" description="Example App (via root screen)"/>
   < artifactGroupId="EXAMPLE_APP" artifactTypeEnumId="AT_XML_SCREEN" inheritAuthz="Y" artifactName="component://example/screen/ExampleApp.xml"/>

In this case the artifactName attribute has the literal value for the location of the screen. It can also be a pattern for the artifact name (with nameIsPattern="Y"), which is especially useful for authz for all services or entities in a package. Here is an example of that for all services in the org.moqui.example package, or more specifically all services whose full name matches the regular expression "org.moqui.example..*":

< artifactGroupId="EXAMPLE_APP" artifactName="org.moqui.example..*" nameIsPattern="Y" artifactTypeEnumId="AT_SERVICE" inheritAuthz="Y"/>

The next step is to configure authorization for the artifact group with a ArtifactAuthz record. Below is an example of a record that gives the ADMIN group always (AUTHZT_ALWAYS) access for all actions (AUTHZA_ALL) to the artifacts in the EXAMPLE_APP artifact group setup above.

< artifactAuthzId="EXAMPLE_AUTHZ_ALL" userGroupId="ADMIN" artifactGroupId="EXAMPLE_APP" authzTypeEnumId="AUTHZT_ALWAYS" authzActionEnumId="AUTHZA_ALL"/>

The always type (authzTypeEnumId) of authorization overrides deny (AUTHZT_DENY) authorizations, unlike the allow authz (AUTHZT_ALLOW) which is overridden by deny. The other options for the authz action (authzActionEnumId) include view (AUTHZA_VIEW), create (AUTHZA_CREATE), update (AUTHZA_UPDATE), and delete (AUTHZA_DELETE) in addition to all (AUTHZA_ALL).

For example here is a record that grants only view authz with the type allow (so can be denied) of the same artifact group to the EXAMPLE_VIEWER group:

< artifactAuthzId="EXAMPLE_AUTHZ_VW" userGroupId="EXAMPLE_VIEWER" artifactGroupId="EXAMPLE_APP" authzTypeEnumId="AUTHZT_ALLOW" authzActionEnumId="AUTHZA_VIEW"/>

Entity artifact authorization can also be restricted to particular records using the ArtifactAuthzRecord entity. This is used with a view entity (viewEntityName) that joins between the userId of the currently logged in user and the desired record. If the name of the field with the userId is anything other than userId specify its name with the userIdField field. The record level authz is checked by doing a query on the view entity with the current userId and the PK fields of the entity the operation is being done on. To add constraints to this query you can add them to the view-entity definition, use the filterByDate attribute, or use ArtifactAuthzRecordCond records to specify conditions.

If authorization fails when an artifact is used the framework creates a ArtifactAuthzFailure record with relevant details.

Entity Filter Sets and Authorization

Automatic query augmentation (adding conditions to find/select queries) can be used to filter records by configuration using the ArtifactAuthzFilter entity. This tries record level authorization to application (screen/etc) authorization. Each filter set associated with an ArtifactAuthz has various condition expressions stored using the EntityFilterSet entity.

Each record has an Entity Name for the entity that should be filtered when queried on (either directly or through a view-entity, ie joined into a query). Each record also has a Filter Map which is a Groovy expression that should evaluate to a Map. While filtering can be done on view entities it is not a good practice as data leakage is easy through direct entity finds or other view entities so filters are generally defined only on plain entities and not view entities.

For view entities and dynamic view entities, which includes DataDocument based dynamic view entities, in order for a filter to apply to a query the fields used in each filter must be included in the definition. This means that entities with a filter must also be included in the view. For example any view entity or report on OrderItem should also include the customerPartyId and vendorPartyId fields on the OrderPart entity for active or user organization based filtering.

The Groovy expressions can be somewhat complex to interpret so below is a list of the entities with a filter and the fields and logic involved. The main OOTB example in Moqui is in the Mantle USL component for organization based record filtering. The expressions use two variables that are always available (populated in always-actions in the root screen of any application that should support organization based filters): ‘activeOrgId’ for the ID of the user selected active organization and ‘filterOrgIds’ which is a set of IDs that should be used to filter the results, either just the activeOrgId or if no active org then all partyIds of organizations the current user is a member of.

Artifact Tarpit

An artifact tarpit limits the velocity of access to artifacts in a group. Here is an example of an artifact group for all screens and a ArtifactTarpit to restrict access for all users to each screen for 60 seconds (tarpitDuration) if there are more than 120 hits (maxHitsCount) within 60 seconds (maxHitsDuration).

< artifactGroupId="ALL_SCREENS" description="All Screens"/>
< artifactGroupId="ALL_SCREENS" artifactName=".*" nameIsPattern="Y" artifactTypeEnumId="AT_XML_SCREEN"/>
< userGroupId="ALL_USERS" artifactGroupId="ALL_SCREENS" maxHitsCount="120" maxHitsDuration="60" tarpitDuration="60"/>

When a particular user (userId) exceeds the configured velocity limit for a particular artifact (artifactName) or a particular type (artifactTypeEnumId) the framework creates a ArtifactTarpitLock record to restrict access to that artifact by the user until a certain date/time (releaseDateTime).